Definition and Characteristics of Dyslexia

  • Dyslexia means a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficult in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity.  Texas Educaton Code (TEC) 38.003

    Primary reading and spelling characteristics:

    • Difficulty reading words in isolation
    • Difficulty accurately decoding unfamiliar words
    • Difficulty with oral reading (slow, inaccurate, or labored without prosody)
    • Difficulty spelling

    Primary reading and spelling characteristics are often the result of difficulty with the following:

    • Segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words (phonemic awareness)
    • Learning the names of letters and their associated sounds
    • Holding information about sounds and words in memory (phonological memory)
    • Rapidly recalling the names of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet (rapid naming) 

    Consequences of dyslexia may include the following:

    • Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension
    • Variable difficulty with aspects of written language
    • Limited vocabulary growth due to reduced reading experiences