Grammar Notes 7th and 8th Grade

  • The 9 Parts of Speech:

    Nouns: Person, Place, Thing, or Idea

    Pronouns: Takes the place of a noun

    Verbs: The Action in the sentence; linking verbs, helping verbs

    Adjectives: Describes or Modifies Nouns or other Adjectives

    Adverbs: Modifies the Verb other Adverbs or Adjectives- Tells How, When, or To What Extent

    Prepositions: Tells Location in a sentence- Begins a Prepositional Phrase.

    Conjunctions: Joins parts of a sentence together- Coordinating, Correlative or Conjunctive Adverbs

    Interjections: Shows strong emotion- It is followed by an Exclamation Mark

    Articles: Come before a noun- A, An, The (These are the only articles)

    Sentences/Clauses:

    Complex Sentences:  A sentence that consists of a dependent and an independent clause.

    Examples: Because I was late to school, I now have a detention.

    Adjectival Clauses: subordinate clause used to modify a noun or pronoun. These clauses begin with the following: Who, Whom, That, Which, Whose.

    Example: The lady, who lives down the road, works at a department store.

     Adverbial Clauses: subordinate clause used mainly to modify a verb.

    Example: I will come to the party (when I finish my homework. )

    Independent Clause: a clause that can stand alone as a sentence.

    Example: I will come to the party when I finish my homework.

    Dependent Clause: a clause that cannot stand alone as a sentence and also begins with a subordinating conjunction.

    A Subordinating Conjunction: single connecting word used in a sentence to introduce a dependent clause.

    Examples:

    after
    although
    as
    as soon as
    because

    before

    even though

    even

    if once

    since

    unless

    until

    when

    whenever

    whereas

    while


    Compound Sentences: Sentences that consist of two independent clauses joined together by a FANBOYS. (For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So)

    or

    Sentences that consist of two independent clauses joined together by a semicolon, conjunctive adverb and a comma.

    or

    Sentences that consist of two independent joined together by just a semicolon.

    Example: I like Chinese food but I love Japanese food.

    I like Chinese food.- This is an independent clause

    I love Japanese food.- This is also an independent clause

    The two clauses or sentences have been combined with the FANBOYS "but"

    We all passed our test; therefore, we went to the movies as a reward.

    I love to ski; I love to water board.


    Appositive Phrase: Phrases or Words that are extra information about the noun in the sentence and are usually set off by a comma or commas.

    Example: My best friend, Gina, lives in Kentucky.

    "Gina" is the Appositive in this sentence.

    All of the beautiful flowers in the garden, the roses and the hydrangeas, grew without any help from the gardener.

    Prepositional Phrases:

    Prepositional Phrases begin with a preposition and end with a noun which is called the object of the preposition.

    Example: We walked under the bridge and around the park to get to school.

    Mechanics:

    Semicolons, Colons and Hyphens

    -A semicolon is used to join two independent clauses. Example: We had a beloved cat; we enjoyed the company she provided.

    -A semicolon is also used after a conjunctive adverb.  Example: The class always completed their assignments; however, this project was an exception.

    -A colon is used before a list of items. Example: Bring the following: food, water, and magazines to the party. 

    - A colon is also used to separate the hour from the seconds when writing the time. Example: 3:30

    - A hyphen is used to write compound words. Example: long-term relationship

    - A hyphen is used when a prefix is needed before a word. Example: pre-Civil War